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Environmental concerns: Are biofuels mitigating GHG emissions?

Introduction

The primary motivation for political promotion of biofuels was energy security and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, one may argue that of the environmental impacts, GHG emissions and related land use change are the most important. GHG emissions should not, however, be reduced at the cost of other environmental pressures (incl. those on biodiversity and water).


Resource documents for bioenergy

International Standard
 

Please access from: www.iso.org/iso/home.html


Other Standards
 
The Sustainability of Biofuels — Limits of the Meta-Standard Approach
Setting a Quality Standard for Fuel Ethanol


Benefits of biofuels  
Using modern bioenergy to reduce rural poverty
The importance of biofuels
, Luiz Carlos Corrêa Carvalho 2005


Sustainability issues  
Sustainable bioenergy: Framework for decision makers, UN-Energy
Bioenergy sustainability principles

EU Sustainability criteria for biofuels — Consolidated texts

Sustainability standards, OEKO (2006) WWF

Pathways to sustainable and poverty eradication

Potential of sustainable liquid biofuel production in Rwanda

Roundtable on responsible soy (RTRS)

RSB Principles and criteria for sustainable biofuel production

RSPO Principles and criteria for sustainable palm oil production

RSPO Supply chain certification systems

Standardized initiatives towards sustainable biomass certification

Sustainability criteria & certification systems for biomass production

Sustainability criteria for biomass and biofuels

Sustainable bioenergy and food security

Verification of compliance with sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids

Global principles and criteria for sustainable biofuels production, V 0.0

Blueprint Germany: A strategy for a climate-safe 2050

Sustainability quick check for biofuels (SQCB)

Criteria for a sustainable use of bioenergy on a global scale

Criteria for sustainable biomass production


Driving legislations and targets  
Directive 2009/28/EC, Promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007
Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 - A Summary of major provisions

Renewable Fuel Standard Program (RFS2) - Notice of final rulemaking
Renewable Fuel Standard Program (RFS2) Summary & analysis of comments


Economics of biofuels  
The impact of sustainability criteria on the costs and potentials of bioenergy production
Jatropha: Money does not grow on trees!

Impacts of the EU biofuel target on agricultural markets and land use

Extractive industries and Millenium Development Goals for Sub-Saharan Africa

Biofuels production, trade and sustainable development

Challenges and opportunities for developing countries in producing biofuels
 

Impact of bioenergy on food security  
Bioenergy and food security: Analytical framework
Bioenergy and global food security

Biofuels and food security: Implications of an accelerated production

Bioenergy, food security and sustainability: Towards an international framework

Will bioenergy development pose a threat to food security in developing countries?

Second FAO technical consultation on bioenergy & food security

The right to food and the impact of liquid biofuels

Price volatility in food and agricultural markets — Policy responses

PISCES food security scoping study

Call for scientific statement on bioenergy and food security

Bioenergy and food security: Analysis for Tanzania

Biofuels and the underlying causes of high food prices

Food Security in Brazil

Do biofuels mitigate GHG emissions?  
Accounting for ILUC in GHG balances of biofuels
Use of US croplands for biofuels increases GHGs through emissions from land use change  
Executive Summary — Understanding land use change and U.S. ethanol expansion  
Quantification of the effects on greenhouse gas emissions of policies and measures  
ILUC can overcome carbon savings from biofuels in Brazil  
Flying in the face of the facts: Greenwashing the aviation industry with biofuels  
Ethanol expansion and indirect land use change in Brazil  
Biofuels in 2011

Climate Change and Water, IPPC Tec Paper VI, 2008  
Corn ethanol and climate change
 

Land use change & indirect land use change  
Tackling Indirect Land Use
"Sustainable" palm oil driving deforestation

Supporting materials for use of U.S. croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land use change

Sugar cane and land use change in Brazil

Soy oil and indirect land use change

Indirect land use change from increased biofuels demand — Comparison of models
Indirect land use change for biofuels

GBEP workshop on idirect land use change - Status of and perspectives on science-based policies

Biofuels: Indirect land use change and climate impact 


Indirect effects of bioenergy
 
Indirect effects of bioenergy: Effects on landscapes and livelihoods

Bioenergy fuelling land grabs
 
Africa up for grabs — The scale and impact of land grabbing for agrofuels
Rising global interest in farmland: Can it yield sustainable and equitable benefits?

The socio-economic effects of GM-crops

Who benefits from GM crops - an industry built on myths
 

Second generation biofuels
Second-generation biofuels - Economics and policies
Role of lignocellulosic feedstocks